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Animals » All living things » Amphibian

Hyla arborea
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Tadpoles, Kurkulis, Vardes

Tadpoles

Code: D-008-17
Author: Aivars Gulbis
Photo taken on May 19, 2017
FREE 1000 x 667 px
72 dpi
248 KB
S 1748 x 1165 px
14.8 x 9.87 cm / 300 dpi
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M 3000 x 2000 px
25.4 x 16.93 cm / 300 dpi
L 3181 x 2121 px
26.93 x 17.96 cm / 300 dpi
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tadpole (also called a pollywog) is the larval stage in the life cycle of an amphibian, particularly that of a frog or toad. They are usually wholly aquatic, though some species have tadpoles that are terrestrial. When first hatched from the egg they have a more or less globular body, a laterally compressed tail and internal or external gills. As they grow they undergo metamorphosis, during which process they grow limbs, develop lungs and reabsorb the tail. Most tadpoles are herbivorous and during metamorphosis the mouth and internal organs are rearranged to prepare for an adult carnivorouslifestyle.

Having no hard parts, it might be expected that fossil tadpoles would not exist. However, traces of biofilms have been preserved and fossil tadpoles have been found dating back to the Miocene. Tadpoles are eaten in some parts of the world and are mentioned in folk tales and used as a symbol in ancient Egyptian numerals.

General description

Tadpoles are young amphibians that usually live in the water, though a few tadpoles are semi-terrestrial (Indirana beddomii and Thoropa miliaris) and terrestrial (Indirana semipalmata and Adenomera andreae). During the tadpole stage of the amphibian life cycle, most respire by means of autonomous external or internal gills. They do not usually have arms or legs until the transition to adulthood, and typically have a large, flattened tail with which they swim by lateral undulation, similar to most fish.

As a tadpole matures, it most commonly metamorphosizes by gradually growing limbs (usually the back legs first, followed by the front legs) and then (most commonly in the case of frogs) outwardly absorbing its tail by apoptosis. Lungs develop around the time of leg development, and tadpoles late in development will often be found near the surface of the water, where they breathe air. During the final stages of external metamorphosis, the tadpole's mouth changes from a small, enclosed mouth at the front of the head to a large mouth the same width as the head. The intestines shorten to accommodate the new diet. Most tadpoles are herbivorous, subsisting on algae and plants. Some species are omnivorous, eating detritus and, when available, smaller tadpoles.

Tadpoles vary greatly in size, both during their development and between species. For example, in a single family, Megophryidae, length of late-stage tadpoles varies between 33 millimetres (1.3 in) and 106 millimetres (4.2 in). The tadpoles of Pseudis paradoxa grow to 25 centimetres (9.8 in), the largest of any frog.
en.wikipedia.org

Tadpoles

Code: D-008-17
Author: Aivars Gulbis
Photo taken on May 19, 2017
FREE 1000 x 667 px
72 dpi
248 KB
S 1748 x 1165 px
14.8 x 9.87 cm / 300 dpi
MB
M 3000 x 2000 px
25.4 x 16.93 cm / 300 dpi
L 3181 x 2121 px
26.93 x 17.96 cm / 300 dpi
5.0 MB
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