0
info@redzet.eu

Nature » Plants » Vegetables

Tomato BerriesLarge and small pumpkins
Read description
Radish, Dārza redīsi (Raphanus raphanistrum subsp. sativus), Dārzeņi

Radish

Code: A-266-19
Author: Aivars Gulbis
Photo taken on May 18, 2019
FREE 1000 x 667 px
72 dpi
217 KB
S 1748 x 1165 px
14.8 x 9.87 cm / 300 dpi
MB
M 3000 x 2000 px
25.4 x 16.93 cm / 300 dpi
L 6000 x 4000 px
50.8 x 33.87 cm / 300 dpi
18.4 MB

The radish (Raphanus raphanistrum subsp. sativus or Raphanus sativus) is an edible root vegetable of the Brassicaceae family that was domesticated in Europe in pre-Roman times.

Radishes are grown and consumed throughout the world, being mostly eaten raw as a crunchy salad vegetable with bite. There are numerous varieties, varying in size, flavor, color, and length of time they take to mature. Radishes owe their sharp flavor to the various chemical compounds produced by the plants, including glucosinolate, myrosinase, and isothiocyanate. They are sometimes grown as companion plants and suffer from few pests and diseases. They germinate quickly and grow rapidly, common smaller varieties being ready for consumption within a month, while larger daikon varieties take several months. Being easy to grow and quick to harvest, radishes are often planted by novice gardeners. Another use of radish is as a cover or catch crop in winter, or as a forage crop. Some radishes are grown for their seeds; daikon, for instance, may be grown for oil production. Others are used for sprouting.

Radish
 Kingdom:     Plantae
 (unranked):  Angiosperms
 (unranked):  Eudicots
 (unranked):  Rosids
 Order:  Brassicales
 Family:  Brassicaceae
 Genus:  Raphanus
 Species:  R. raphanistrum
 Subspecies:  R. raphanistrum subsp. sativus

History
Varieties of radish are now broadly distributed around the world, but almost no archeological records are available to help determine their early history and domestication. However, scientists tentatively locate the origin of Raphanus sativus in Southeast Asia, as this is the only region where truly wild forms have been discovered. India, central China, and Central Asia appear to have been secondary centers where differing forms were developed. Radishes enter the historical record in third century BC. Greek and Roman agriculturalists of the first century AD gave details of small, large, round, long, mild, and sharp varieties. The radish seems to have been one of the first European crops introduced to the Americas. A German botanist reported radishes of 100 lb (45 kg) and roughly 3 ft (90 cm) in length in 1544, although the only variety of that size today is the Japanese Sakurajima radish. The large, mild, and white East Asian form was developed in China, though is mostly associated in the West with the Japanese daikon, owing to Japanese agricultural development and larger exports.

Description
Radishes are annual or biennial brassicaceous crops grown for their swollen tap roots which can be globular, tapering, or cylindrical. The root skin colour ranges from white through pink, red, purple, yellow, and green to black, but the flesh is usually white. The roots obtain their color from anthocyanins. Red varieties use the anthocyanin pelargonidin as a pigment, and purple cultivars obtain their color from cyanidin. Smaller types have a few leaves about 13 cm (5 in) long with round roots up to 2.5 cm (1 in) in diameter or more slender, long roots up to 7 cm (3 in) long. Both of these are normally eaten raw in salads. A longer root form, including oriental radishes, daikon or mooli, and winter radishes, grows up to 60 cm (24 in) long with foliage about 60 cm (24 in) high with a spread of 45 cm (18 in). The flesh of radishes harvested timely is crisp and sweet, but becomes bitter and tough if the vegetable is left in the ground too long. Leaves are arranged in a rosette. They have a lyrate shape, meaning they are divided pinnately with an enlarged terminal lobe and smaller lateral lobes. The white flowers are borne on a racemose inflorescence. The fruits are small pods which can be eaten when young.

The radish is a diploid species, and has 18 chromosomes (2n=18). It is estimated that the radish genome contains between 526 and 574 Mb.

Cultivation
Radishes are a fast-growing, annual, cool-season crop. The seed germinates in three to four days in moist conditions with soil temperatures between 65 and 85 °F (18 and 29 °C). Best quality roots are obtained under moderate day lengths with air temperatures in the range 50 to 65 °F (10 to 18 °C). Under average conditions, the crop matures in 3–4 weeks, but in colder weather, 6–7 weeks may be required.

Radishes grow best in full sun in light, sandy loams, with a soil pH 6.5 to 7.0, but for late-season crops, a clayey-loam is ideal. Soils that bake dry and form a crust in dry weather are unsuitable and can impair germination. Harvesting periods can be extended by making repeat plantings, spaced a week or two apart. In warmer climates, radishes are normally planted in the autumn. The depth at which seeds are planted affects the size of the root, from 1 cm (0.4 in) deep recommended for small radishes to 4 cm (1.6 in) for large radishes. During the growing period, the crop needs to be thinned and weeds controlled, and irrigation may be required.

Radishes are a common garden crop in many parts of the world, and the fast harvest cycle makes them particularly suitable for children's gardens. After harvesting, radishes can be stored without loss of quality for two or three days at room temperature, and about two months at 0 °C (32 °F) with a relative humidity of 90–95%.

Companion plant
Radishes can be useful as companion plants for many other crops, probably because their pungent odour deters such insect pests as aphids, cucumber beetles, tomato hornworms, squash bugs, and ants. They can also function as a trap crop, luring insect pests away from the main crop. Cucumbers and radishes seem to thrive when grown in close association with each other, and radishes also grow well with chervil, lettuce, peas, and nasturtiums. However, they react adversely to growing in close association with hyssop.

Pests
As a fast-growing plant, diseases are not generally a problem with radishes, but some insect pests can be a nuisance. The larvae of flea beetles (Delia radicum) live in the soil, but the adult beetles cause damage to the crop, biting small "shot holes" in the leaves, especially of seedlings. The swede midge (Contarinia nasturtii) attacks the foliage and growing tip of the plant and causes distortion, multiple (or no) growing tips, and swollen or crinkled leaves and stems. The larvae of the cabbage root fly sometimes attack the roots. The foliage droops and becomes discoloured, and small, white maggots tunnel through the root, making it unattractive or inedible.
en.wikipedia.org

Radish

Code: A-266-19
Author: Aivars Gulbis
Photo taken on May 18, 2019
FREE 1000 x 667 px
72 dpi
217 KB
S 1748 x 1165 px
14.8 x 9.87 cm / 300 dpi
MB
M 3000 x 2000 px
25.4 x 16.93 cm / 300 dpi
L 6000 x 4000 px
50.8 x 33.87 cm / 300 dpi
18.4 MB
When choosing to browse our site, you consent to the use of cookies to tailor your experience.
Accept
Priecājamies dalīties ar savām fotogrāfijām!

Turpināt lejuplādēt

Ja vēlaties atbalstīt portālu ar savu brīvprātīgo ziedojumu tā attīstībai:
PayPal:
vai
Bankas pārskaitījums:
Aija Pastare
Konts: LV13HABA0551043352866