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Magnolias in University of Latvia Botanical Garden, Ziemeļu Kobus magnolija (Magnolia kobus var. borealis), Magnolijas (Magnolia), LU Botāniskais dārzs, Pavasaris, Rīga (pilsēta)

Magnolias in University of Latvia Botanical Garden

Code: A-281-19-AM
Author: Ausma Melluma
Photo taken on April 29, 2019
S 2000 x 1333 px
3.16 MB
M 3000 x 2000 px
25.4 x 16.93 cm / 300 dpi
L 5560 x 3707 px
47.07 x 31.39 cm / 300 dpi
20.2 MB

Magnolia is a large genus of about 210 flowering plant species in the subfamily Magnolioideae of the family Magnoliaceae. It is named after French botanist Pierre Magnol.

Magnolia is an ancient genus. Appearing before bees did, the flowers are theorized to have evolved to encourage pollination by beetles. To avoid damage from pollinating beetles, the carpels of Magnolia flowers are extremely tough. Fossilized specimens of M. acuminata have been found dating to 20 million years ago, and of plants identifiably belonging to the Magnoliaceae date to 95 million years ago. Another aspect of Magnolia considered to represent an ancestral state is that the flower bud is enclosed in a bract rather than in sepals; the perianthparts are undifferentiated and called tepals rather than distinct sepals and petals. Magnolia shares the tepal characteristic with several other flowering plants near the base of the flowering plant lineage such as Amborella and Nymphaea (as well as with many more recently derived plants such as Lilium).

The natural range of Magnolia species is a disjunct distribution, with a main center in east and southeast Asia and a secondary center in eastern North America, Central America, the West Indies, and some species in South America.

Description
As with all Magnoliaceae, the perianth is undifferentiated, with 9–15 tepals in 3 or more whorls. The flowers are bisexual with numerous adnate carpels and stamens are arranged in a spiral fashion on the elongated receptacle. The fruit dehisces along the dorsal sutures of the carpels. The pollen is monocolpate, and the embryo development is of the Polygonum type.

Uses
Horticultural uses
In general, the genus Magnolia has attracted horticultural interest. Some, such as the shrub M. stellata (star magnolia) and the tree M. × soulangeana (saucer magnolia) flower quite early in the spring, before the leaves open. Others flower in late spring or early summer, including M. virginiana (sweetbay magnolia) and M. grandiflora (southern magnolia).

Hybridisation has been immensely successful in combining the best aspects of different species to give plants which flower at an earlier age than the parent species, as well as having more impressive flowers. One of the most popular garden magnolias, M. × soulangeana, is a hybrid of M. liliiflora and M. denudata.

In the eastern United States, five native species are frequently in cultivation: M. acuminata (as a shade tree), M. grandifloraM. virginianaM. tripetala, and M. macrophylla. The last two species must be planted where high winds are not a frequent problem because of the size of their leaves.

Culinary uses
The flowers of many species are considered edible. In parts of England, the petals of M. grandiflora are pickled and used as a spicy condiment. In some Asian cuisines, the buds are pickled and used to flavor rice and scent tea. In Japan, the young leaves and flower buds of Magnolia hypoleuca are broiled and eaten as a vegetable. Older leaves are made into a powder and used as seasoning; dried, whole leaves are placed on a charcoal brazier and filled with miso, leeks, daikon, and shiitake, and broiled. There is a type of miso which is seasoned with Magnolia, hoba miso.

In parts of Japan, the leaves of M. obovata are used for wrapping food and as cooking dishes.

Traditional medicine
The bark and flower buds of M. officinalis have long been used in traditional Chinese medicine, where they are known as hou po (厚朴). In Japan, kōbokuM. obovata, has been used in a similar manner.

Timber
The cucumbertree, M. acuminata, grows to large size and is harvested as a timber tree in northeastern US forests. Its wood is sold as "yellow poplar" along with that of the tuliptree, Liriodendron tulipifera. The Fraser magnolia, M. fraseri, also attains enough size sometimes to be harvested, as well.

Other uses
Magnolias are used as food plants by the larvae of some Lepidoptera species, including the giant leopard moth.
en.wikipedia.org


Magnolias in University of Latvia Botanical Garden

Code: A-281-19-AM
Author: Ausma Melluma
Photo taken on April 29, 2019
S 2000 x 1333 px
3.16 MB
M 3000 x 2000 px
25.4 x 16.93 cm / 300 dpi
L 5560 x 3707 px
47.07 x 31.39 cm / 300 dpi
20.2 MB
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