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Little Stream Flows Into The Sea, Strauts

Little Stream Flows Into The Sea

Code: U-064-18
Author: Aivars Gulbis
Photo taken on May 25, 2018
FREE 1000 x 667 px
72 dpi
206 KB
S 1748 x 1165 px
14.8 x 9.87 cm / 300 dpi
MB
M 3000 x 2000 px
25.4 x 16.93 cm / 300 dpi
L 3888 x 2592 px
32.92 x 21.95 cm / 300 dpi
7.27 MB

Streamflow, or channel runoff, is the flow of water in streams, rivers, and other channels, and is a major element of the water cycle. It is one component of the runoff of water from the land to waterbodies, the other component being surface runoff. Water flowing in channels comes from surface runoff from adjacent hillslopes, from groundwater flow out of the ground, and from water discharged from pipes. The discharge of water flowing in a channel is measured using stream gauges or can be estimated by the Manning equation. The record of flow over time is called a hydrograph. Flooding occurs when the volume of water exceeds the capacity of the channel.

Role in the water cycle
Streams and rivers play a critical role in the hydrologic cycle that is essential for all life on Earth. A diversity of biological species, from unicellular organisms to vertebrates, depend on flowing-water systems for their habitat and food resources. Rivers are major aquatic landscapes for all manners of plants and animals. Rivers even help keep the aquifers underground full of water by discharging water downward through their streambeds. In addition to that the oceans stay full of water because rivers and runoff continually refreshes them. Streamflow is the main mechanism by which water moves from the land to the oceans or to basins of interior drainage.

Sources of streamflow
Surface and subsurface sources: Stream discharge is derived from four sources: channel precipitation, overland flow, interflow, and groundwater.

  • Channel precipitation is the moisture falling directly on the water surface, and in most streams, it adds very little to discharge. Groundwater, on the other hand, is a major source of discharge, and in large streams, it accounts for the bulk of the average daily flow.
  • Groundwater enters the streambed where the channel intersects the water table, providing a steady supply of water, termed baseflow, during both dry and rainy periods. Because of the large supply of groundwater available to the streams and the slowness of the response of groundwater to precipitation events, baseflow changes only gradually over time, and it is rarely the main cause of flooding. However, it does contribute to flooding by providing a stage onto which runoff from other sources is superimposed.
  • Interflow is water that infiltrates the soil and then moves laterally to the stream channel in the zone above the water table. Much of this water is transmitted within the soil itself, some of it moving within the horizons. Next to baseflow, it is the most important source of discharge for streams in forested lands. Overland flow in heavily forested areas makes negligible contributions to streamflow.
  • In dry regions, cultivated, and urbanized areas, overland flow or surface runoff is usually a major source of streamflow. Overland flow is a stormwater runoff that begins as thin layer of water that moves very slowly (typically less than 0.25 feet per second) over the ground. Under intensive rainfall and in the absence of barriers such as rough ground, vegetation, and absorbing soil, it can mount up, rapidly reaching stream channels in minutes and causing sudden rises in discharge. The quickest response times between rainfall and streamflow occur in urbanized areas where yard drains, street gutters, and storm sewers collect overland flow and route it to streams straightaway. Runoff velocities in storm sewer piper can reach 10 to 15 feet per second.

Little Stream Flows Into The Sea

Code: U-064-18
Author: Aivars Gulbis
Photo taken on May 25, 2018
FREE 1000 x 667 px
72 dpi
206 KB
S 1748 x 1165 px
14.8 x 9.87 cm / 300 dpi
MB
M 3000 x 2000 px
25.4 x 16.93 cm / 300 dpi
L 3888 x 2592 px
32.92 x 21.95 cm / 300 dpi
7.27 MB
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