0
info@redzet.eu

Nature » Plants » Wild plants, flowers

Dew Drops on a Common CowslipDew Drops on a Common Cowslip
Read description
Close up of Primula veris, Gaiļbiksīte (Primula veris), Gaiļbiksīte, Rasa

Close up of Primula veris

Code: A-283-12
Author: Aivars Gulbis
Photo taken on May 9, 2012
S 1333 x 2000 px
1.8 MB
M 1494 x 2242 px
12.65 x 19.98 cm / 300 dpi
2.18 MB

Primula veris (cowslip, common cowslip, cowslip primrose; syn. Primula officinalis Hill) is a herbaceous perennial flowering plant in the primrose family Primulaceae. The species is native throughout most of temperate Europe and western Asia, and although absent from more northerly areas including much of northwest Scotland, it reappears in northernmost Sutherland and Orkney and in Scandinavia. This species frequently hybridizes with other Primulas such as Primula vulgaris to form false oxlip (Primula × polyantha) which is often confused with true oxlip (Primula elatior), a much rarer plant.

Primula veris
 Kingdom:     Plantae
 Clade:  Angiosperms
 Clade:  Eudicots
 Clade:  Asterids
 Order:  Ericales
 Family:  Primulaceae
 Genus:  Primula
 Species:  P. veris

Names
The common name cowslip may derive from the old English for cow dung, probably because the plant was often found growing amongst the manure in cow pastures. An alternative derivation simply refers to slippery or boggy ground; again, a typical habitat for this plant.

The species name veris (of spring) is the genitive case form of Latin "ver" (spring). However, primrose P. vulgaris, flowers earlier, from December to May in the British isles.

Other common names include cuy lippe, herb peter, paigle, peggle, key flower, key of heaven, fairy cups, petty mulleins, crewel, buckles, palsywort, and plumrocks.

Description
Primula veris is a variable evergreen or semi-evergreen perennial plant growing to 25 cm (10 in) tall and broad, with a rosette of leaves 5–15 cm long and 2–6 cm broad. The deep yellow flowers are produced in spring, in clusters of 10-30 blooms together on a single stem. Each flower is 9–15 mm broad. Red- and orange-flowered plants occur rarely but can be locally widespread in areas where coloured primula hybrids bloom at the same time as the native cowslip enabling cross-pollination.

Habitat and conservation
The cowslip is frequently found on more open ground than the primrose, including open fields, meadows, coastal dunes and clifftops. The plant suffered a decline due to changing agricultural practices throughout the 1970s and 1980s in Britain. It may therefore be rare locally, though where found it may be abundant. Additionally the seeds are now often included in wildflower seed mixes used to landscape motorway banks and similar civil engineering earthworks where the plants may be seen in dense stands. This practice has led to a revival in its fortunes.

In cultivation this plant has gained the Royal Horticultural Society's Award of Garden Merit.

Similar species
The cowslip may be confused with the closely related Primula elatior (oxlip) which has a similar general appearance and habitat, although the oxlip has larger, pale yellow flowers more like a primrose, and a corolla tube without folds.

Chemical constituents
The roots of Primula veris contain several glycosides of 5-methoxysalicylic methyl ester, such as primeverin and primulaverin. In the dried crude root, their phenolic aglycones are responsible for the typical odor reminiscent of methyl salicylate or anethole. The dried roots contain significant amounts of triterpene saponins, such as primula acid I/II, while in the flower these constituents are located in the sepals, and the dominating constituents are flavonoids. Rare side effects of the saponins can be nausea or diarrhea while some of the phenolic constituents are possibly responsible for allergic reactions.

The subspecies macrocalyx, growing in Siberia, contains the phenolic compound riccardin C.

Cuisine
Cowslip leaves have been traditionally used in Spanish cooking as a salad green. Uses in English cookery include using the flowers to flavor country wine and vinegars; sugaring to be a sweet or eaten as part of a composed salad while the juice of the cowslip is used to prepare tansy for frying. The close cousin of the cowslip, the primrose P. vulgaris has often been confused with the cowslip and its uses in cuisine are similar with the addition of its flowers being used as a colouring agent in desserts.

English children's writer Alison Uttley in her story "The Country Child" (1931) of family life on an English farm from the perspective of a 9-year-old farmer's daughter Susan describes cowslips among the favourite flowers of her heroine and mentions her participation in preparing them for making cowslip wine, a locally important process. After its initial preparation, cowslip wine "would change to sparkling yellow wine" offered in "little fluted glasses" with a biscuit to important "morning visitors" of the farm: such as the curate coming for subscriptions, the local squire (landowner) and an occasional dealer (of their produce). This wine "was more precious than elderberry wine, which was the drink for cold weather, for snow and sleet".
en.wikipedia.org

Close up of Primula veris

Code: A-283-12
Author: Aivars Gulbis
Photo taken on May 9, 2012
S 1333 x 2000 px
1.8 MB
M 1494 x 2242 px
12.65 x 19.98 cm / 300 dpi
2.18 MB
When choosing to browse our site, you consent to the use of cookies to tailor your experience.
Accept
Priecājamies dalīties ar savām fotogrāfijām!

Turpināt lejuplādēt

Ja vēlaties atbalstīt portālu ar savu brīvprātīgo ziedojumu tā attīstībai:
PayPal:
vai
Bankas pārskaitījums:
Aija Pastare
Konts: LV13HABA0551043352866